Standard Costing and Variance Analysis Problems & Solution


Standard Costing and Variance Analysis Problems & Solution:

Problem 1:

Materials Variance Analysis:

The Schlosser Lawn Furniture Company uses 12 meters of aluminum pipe at $0.80 per meter as standard for the production of its Type A lawn chair. During one month’s operations, 100,000 meters of the pipe were purchased at $0.78 a meter, and 7,200 chairs were produced using 87,300 meters of pipe. The materials price variance is recognized when materials are purchased.

Required: Materials price and quantity variances.

Solution:

Meters of pipe Unit Cost Amount
Actual quantity purchased 100,000 $0.78 actual $78,000
actual quantity purchased 100,000 $0.80 standard $80,000
———– ———– ———–
Materials purchase price variance 100,000 $(0.02) $(2,000) fav.
======= ======= =======
Actual quantity used 87,300 0.80 standard $69,840
Standard quantity allowed 86,400 0.80 standard $69120
————- ————- ————-
Materials quantity variance 900 0.80 $720 Unfav
======= ======= =======

Problem 2:

Materials Variance Analysis:

The standard price for material 3-291 is $3.65 per liter. During November, 2,000 liters were purchased at $3.60 per liter. The quantity of material 3-291 issued during the month was 1775 liters and the quantity allowed for November production was 1,825 liters. Calculate materials price variance, assuming that:

Required: Materials price variance, assuming that:

  1. It is recorded at the time of purchase (Materials purchase price variance).
  2. It is recorded at the time of issue (Materials price usage variance).

Solution:

Liters Unit cost Amount
Actual quantity purchased 2,000 3.60 actual $7,200
Actual quantity purchased 2,000 3.65 standard 7,300
——— ————- ———
Materials purchase price variance 2,000 $ (0.05) $(100) fav.
====== ====== ======
Actual quantity used 1775 3.60 actual $6390.00
Actual quantity used 1775 3.65 standard $6478.75
——– ———– ———–
Materials price usage variance 1775 $(0.05) (88.75)
====== ====== =======

Problem 3:

Labor Variance Analysis:

The processing of a product requires a standard of 0.8 direct labor hours per unit for Operation 4-802 at a standard wage rate of $6.75 per hour. The 2,000 units actually required 1,580 direct labor hours at a cost of $6.90 per hour.

Required: Calculate:

  1. labor rate variance or Labor price variance.
  2. Labor efficiency or usage or quantity variance.

Solution:

Time Rate Amount
Actual hours worked 1,580 $6.90 actual $10,902
Actual hours worked 1.580 $6.75 standard 10,665
——– ——– ——–
Labor rate variance 1,580 $0.15 $237 unfav.
===== ===== =====
Actual hours worked 1,580 $6.75 standard $10,665
Standard hours allowed 1,600 $6.75 standard $10,800
———- ———— ———–
Labor efficiency variance (20) 6.75 standard $(135) fav.
====== ====== ======

Problem 4:

Factory Overhead Variance Analysis:

The Osage Company uses a standard cost system. The factory overhead standard rate per direct labor hour is:

Fixed: $4,500 / 5,000 hours = $0.90
Variable: $7,500 / 5,000 hours = $1.50
——–
$2.40

For October, actual factory overhead was $11,000 actual labor hours worked were 4,400 and the standard hours allowed for actual production were 4,500.

Required: Factory overhead variances using two, three and four variance methods.

Solution:

Two Variance Method:
Actual factory overhead $11,000
Budgeted allowance based on standard hours allowed:
     Fixed expenses budgeted $4,500
     Variable expenses (4,500 standard hours allowed × $1.50 variable overhead rate) $6,750
———– $11,250
———–
Favorable controllable variance $ (250) fav.
======
Budgeted allowance based on standard hours allowed $11,250
Overhead charged to production (4,500 standard hours allowed × $2.40 standard rate) $10,800
————
Unfavorable volume variance $450 unfav.
======
Three Variance Method:
Actual factory overhead $11,000
Budgeted allowance based on actual hours worked:
     Fixed expenses budgeted $4,500
     Variable expenses (4,400 actual hours worked × $1.50 variable overhead rate) $6,600
———– $11,100
———–
Favorable spending variance $ (100) fav.
======
Budgeted allowance based on actual hours worked $11,100
Actual hours worked × Standard overhead rate (4,400 hours × $2.40) $10,560
————
Unfavorable spending variance $540 unfav.
======
Actual hours worked × Standard overhead rate (4,400 hours × $2.40) $10,560
Overhead charged to production (4,500 standard hours allowed × $2.40 standard rate) $10,800
———–
Favorable efficiency variance $ (240) fav.
=====
Four Variance Method:
Actual factory overhead $11,000
Budgeted allowance based on actual hours worked:
     Fixed expense budgeted $4,500
     Variable expenses (4,400 actual hours worked × $1.50 variable overhead rate) $6,600
———– $11,100
———–
Favorable spending variance $ (100) fav.
======
Budgeted allowance based on actual hours worked $11,100
Budgeted allowance based on standard hours allowed $11,250
———–
Favorable variable overhead efficiency variance $ (150) fav.
======
Actual hours × fixed overhead rate (4,400 actual hours × $0.90 fixed overhead rate) $3,960
Standard hours allowed × fixed overhead rate  (4,500 actual hours × $0.90) 4,050
———–
Favorable fixed overhead efficiency variance $ (90) fav.
======
Normal capacity hours (5000) × Fixed overhead rate ($0.90) $4,500
Actual hours worked (4,400) × Fixed overhead rate ($0.90) $3,960
————
Unfavorable Idle capacity variance (600 hours × $0.90) $540 unfav.
======

Problem 5:

Variance Analysis:

On May 1, Bovar Company began the manufacture of a new mechanical device known a “Dandy.” The company installed a standard cost system in accounting for manufacturing costs. The standard costs for a unit of Dandy are:

Materials: 6 lbs. at $1 per lb. $ 6.00
Direct labor: 1 hour at $4 per hour $ 4.00
Factory overhead: 75% of direct labor cost $ 3.00
———–
Total $13.00
======

The following data were obtained from Bovar’s record for may:

Actual production of Dandy 4,000 units
Units sold of Dandy 2,500
Sales $50,000
Purchases (26,000 pounds) 27,300
Materials price variance (applicable to May purchase) $1,300 unfavorable
Materials quantity variance 1,000 unfavorable
Direct labor rate variance 760 unfavorable.
Direct labor efficiency variance 800 favorable
Factory overhead total variance 500 unfavorable

Required:

  1. Standard quantity of materials allowed (in pounds).
  2. Actual quantity of materials used (in pounds).
  3. Standards hours allowed.
  4. Actual hours allowed.
  5. Actual direct labor rate.
  6. Actual total factory overhead.

Solution:

Actual production 4,000 units
Standard materials per unit 6 pounds
————
Standard quantity of materials allowed 24,000 pounds
=======
Standard quantity of materials allowed 24,000 pounds
Unfavorable materials quantity variance ($1,000 variance / $1 standard price per pound) 1,000 pounds
————-
Actual quantity of materials used 25,000 pounds
========
Actual production 4,000 units
Standard hours per unit 1 hour
————
Standard hours allowed 4,000 hours
========
Standard hours allowed 4,000 hours
Favorable direct labor efficiency variance ($800 variance / $4 standard rate per direct labor hour) (200) hours
————-
Actual hours worked 3,800 hours
=======
Standard direct labor rate $4.00
Unfavorable direct labor rate variance ($760 variance / 3,800 hours actually worked) 0.20
————
Actual direct labor rate $4.20
======
Standard factory overhead (4,000 units produced × $3 standard overhead rate per unit) $12,000
Unfavorable factory overhead variance 500
————-
Actual total factory overhead $12,500
=======

You may also be interested in other articles from “standard costing and variance analysis” chapter

  1. Standard Costs and Management By Exception
  2. Setting Standard Costs – Ideal Versus Practical Standards
  3. Direct Materials Price and Quantity Standards
  4. Direct Materials Price Variance
  5. Direct Materials Quantity Variance
  6. Direct Labor Rate and Efficiency Standards
  7. Direct Labor Rate/Price Variance
  8. Direct Labor Efficiency | Usage | Quantity Variance
  9. Manufacturing Overhead Standards
  10. Overall or net factory overhead variance.
  11. Controllable variance
  12. Volume variance
  13. Spending variance
  14. Idle capacity variance
  15. Efficiency variance
  16. Spending variance
  17. Variable efficiency variance
  18. Fixed efficiency variance
  19. Idle capacity variance
  20. Mix and Yield Variance – Definition and Explanation
  21. Materials Mix and Yield Variance
  22. Labor Yield Variance
  23. Factory Overhead Yield variance
  24. Variance Analysis and Management By Exception
  25. Managerial importance and usefulness of variance analysis
  26. Advantages and Disadvantages of Standard Costing System
  27. Standard Costing Discussion Questions and Answers
  28. Standard Costing and Variance Analysis Formulas
  29. Standard Costing and Variance Analysis Problems and Solution
  30. Standard Costing and Variance Analysis Case Study

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