Cost Accounting Procedure for Scrap and Waste: (Scrap Accounting)
In many manufacturing processes, waste and scrap result from:
- The processing of materials.
- Defective and broken parts.
- Absolute stock.
- Revisions or abandonment of experimental projects.
- Worn out or absolute machinery.
This scrap should be collected and placed in storage for sale to scrap dealers. At the time of sale, the following entry may be made:
|Cash (or accounts receivable)
Scrape sales (or factory overhead control)
The amount realized from the sale of scrap and waste can be treated in two ways with respect to the income statement:
- The amount accumulated in scrap sales may be closed directly to income summary and shown on the income statement under other income.
- The amount may be credited to factory overhead control, thus reducing the total factory overhead expense and thereby the cost of goods manufactured.
When scrap is collected from a job or department, the amount realized form the sale of scrap is often treated as a reduction in the materials cost charged to the individual job or product. In this case, the entry to record the sale would be:
|Cash (or accounts receivable)
Work in process
When the quantity and value of scrap materials is relatively high, it should be stored in designated place under the supervision of a storekeeper. A scrap report ( as shown below) is generally prepared in duplicate to authorize transfer and receipt of the scrap.
Example of Weekly Scrap Report
The original is forwarded to the materials ledger clerk, and a copy remains on file in the department in which the scrape originated. The material ledger clerk can follow tow procedures:
- Open a materials ledger card, filling in the quantity only. The dollar value would not be needed. When the scrap is sold, the entries and treatment of the income item might be handled as discussed previously.
- Record not only the quantity but also the dollar value of the scrap delivered to the storekeeper. The value would be based on scrap prices quoted on the market on the time of entry. The entry would be:
|Scrap Materials||xxxx Dr.|
|Scrape Sales (or work in process or overhead control)||xxxx Cr.|
When the scrap is sold the entry would be:
Cash (or accounts receivable)
|Scrap Materials||xxxx Cr.|
Any difference between the price at the time the inventory is recorded and the price realized at the time of sale would be a plus or minus adjustment in the scrap sales account, the work in process account, or the factory over head control account, consistent with the account credited in the first entry.
To reduce accounting for scrap a minimum, often no entry is made until the scrap is actually sold. At that time, cash or accounts receivable is debited while scrap sales is credited. This method is expedient and is justified when a more accurate accounting becomes expensive and burdensome, the scrap value is relatively small, or the price is uncertain.
Proceeds from the sale of scrap in reality a reduction in production cost. As long as the amounts are relatively small, the accounting treatment is not a major consideration. What is important is a effective scrap control system based on periodic reporting to responsible supervisory personnel. Timely scrap reports for each producing department call attention to unexpected items and unusual amounts and should induce prompt corrective actions.
You may also be interested in other useful articles from “controlling and costing materials” chapter:
- Purchases of productive material
- Purchases of supplies, services, and repairs
- Materials purchasing forms
- Receiving materials
- Invoice approval and data processing
- Correcting invoices
- Electronic data processing (EDP) for materials received and issued
- Cost of acquiring materials
- Storage and use of materials
- Issuing and costing materials into production
- Materials ledger card – perpetual inventory
- First-in-First-Out (FIFO) Costing Method
- Average Costing Method
- Last-in-First-Out (LIFO) Costing Method
- Other Methods-Month end average cost, last purchase price or market price at date of issue, and standard cost
- Inventory valuation at cost or market whichever is lower
- American Institute of Certified Public Accountant (AICPA) cost or market rules
- Adjustments for departures from the costing method used
- Inventory pricing and interim financial reporting
- Transfer of materials cost to finished production
- Physical inventory
- Adjusting Materials Ledger Cards and Accounts to Conform to Inventory Accounts
- Scrap and waste
- Spoiled goods
- Defective work
- Discussion Questions and Answers about Controlling and Costing Materials
Other Related Accounting Articles:
- Cost Accounting Procedure for Spoiled Goods
- Invoice Approval and Data Processing
- Transfer of Materials Cost to Finished Production–Inventory Valuation
- Cost or Market Whichever is Lower–Inventory Valuation
- First In First Out (FIFO) – Materials and Inventory Costing Method
- Physical Inventory – Inventory Valuation
- Materials Ledger Card–Perpetual Inventory
- Issuing and Costing Materials into Production
- Storage and Use of Materials
- Cost of Acquiring Materials | Materials Acquisition Cost
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