Operating ratio is the ratio of cost of
goods sold plus operating expenses to net sales. It is generally expressed in
Operating ratio measures the cost of operations
per dollar of sales. This is closely related to the ratio of operating profit to
The two basic components for the calculation of
operating ratio are operating cost (cost of goods
sold plus operating expenses) and net sales. Operating expenses normally include
(a) administrative and office expenses and (b) selling and distribution
expenses. Financial charges such as interest, provision for taxation etc. are
generally excluded from operating expenses.
Formula of operating ratio:
Operating Ratio = [(Cost of goods
sold + Operating expenses) / Net sales] × 100
Cost of goods sold is $180,000 and
other operating expenses are $30,000
and net sales is $300,000.
Calculate operating ratio.
Operating ratio = [(180,000 + 30,000) / 300,000] × 100
= [210,000 / 300,000] × 100
Operating ratio shows the operational efficiency of the business. Lower
operating ratio shows higher operating profit and vice versa. An operating ratio
ranging between 75% and 80% is generally considered as standard for
manufacturing concerns. This ratio is considered to be a yardstick of operating
efficiency but it should be used cautiously because it may be affected by a
number of uncontrollable factors beyond the control of the firm. Moreover, in
some firms, non-operating expenses from a substantial part of the total expenses
and in such cases operating ratio may give misleading results.