Current Ratio


Current Ratio:

It is a measure of general liquidity and is most widely used to make the analysis for short term financial position or liquidity of a firm. It is calculated by dividing the total of the current assets by total of the current liabilities.

Contents:

  1. Definition of current ratio
  2. Formula
  3. Components
  4. Example
  5. Significance
  6. Limitations of current ratio

Definition:

Current ratio may be defined as the relationship between current assets and current liabilities. This ratio is also known as “working capital ratio“. It is a measure of general liquidity and is most widely used to make the analysis for short term financial position or liquidity of a firm. It is calculated by dividing the total of the current assets by total of the current liabilities.

Formula:

Following formula is used to calculate current ratio:

Current Ratio = Current Assets / Current Liabilities

Or

Current Assets : Current Liabilities

Components:

The two basic components of this ratio are current assets and current liabilities. Current assets include cash and those assets which can be easily converted into cash within a short period of time, generally, one year, such as marketable securities or readily realizable investments, bills receivables, sundry debtors, (excluding bad debts or provisions), inventories, work in progress, etc. Prepaid  expenses should also be included in current assets because they represent payments made in advance which will not have to be paid in near future.

Current liabilities are those obligations which are payable within a short period of tie generally one year and include outstanding expenses, bills payable, sundry creditors, bank overdraft, accrued expenses, short term advances, income tax payable, dividend payable, etc. However, some times a controversy arises that whether overdraft should be regarded as current liability or not. Often an arrangement with a bank may be regarded as permanent and therefore, it may be treated as long term liability. At the same time the fact remains that the overdraft facility may be cancelled at any time. Accordingly, because of this reason and the need for conversion in interpreting  a situation, it seems advisable to include overdrafts in current liabilities.

Example:

Current assets are $1,200,000 and total current liabilities are $600,000.

Calculate current ratio.

Calculation:

Current Ratio = 1,200,000 / 600,000

= 2

or

1200,000 : 600,000

2 : 1

Significance:

This ratio is a general and quick measure of liquidity of a firm. It represents the margin of safety or cushion available to the creditors. It is an index of the firms financial stability. It is also an index of technical solvency and an index of the strength of working capital.

A relatively high current ratio is an indication that the firm is liquid and has the ability to pay its current obligations in time and when they become due. On the other hand, a relatively low current ratio represents that the liquidity position of the firm is not good and the firm shall not be able to pay its current liabilities in time without facing difficulties. An increase in the current ratio represents improvement in the liquidity position of the firm while a decrease in the current ratio represents that there has been a deterioration in the liquidity position of the firm. A ratio equal to or near 2 : 1 is considered as a standard or normal or satisfactory. The idea of having double the current assets as compared to current liabilities is to provide for the delays and losses in the realization of current assets. However, the rule of 2 :1 should not be blindly used while making interpretation of the ratio. Firms having less than 2 : 1 ratio may be having a better liquidity than even firms having more than 2 : 1 ratio. This is because of the reason that current ratio measures the quantity of the current assets and not the quality of the current assets. If a firm’s current assets include debtors which are not recoverable or stocks which are slow-moving or obsolete, the current ratio may be high but it does not represent a good liquidity position.

Limitations of Current Ratio:

This ratio is measure of liquidity and should be used very carefully because it suffers from many limitations. It is, therefore, suggested that it should not be used as the sole index of short term solvency.

  1. It is crude ratio because it measure only the quantity and not the quality of the current assets.
  2. Even if the ratio is favorable, the firm may be in financial trouble, because of more stock and work in process which is not easily convertible into cash, and, therefore firm may have less cash to pay off current liabilities.
  3. Valuation of current assets and window dressing is another problem. This ratio can be very easily manipulated by overvaluing the current assets. An equal increase in both current assets and current liabilities would decrease the ratio and similarly equal decrease in current assets and current liabilities would increase current ratio.

You may also be interested in other articles from “financial statement analysis” chapter:

  1. Horizontal and Vertical Analysis
  2. Ratios Analysis
  3. Horizontal Analysis or Trend Analysis
  4. Trend Percentage
  5. Vertical Analysis
  6. Accounting Ratios Definition, Advantages, Classification and Limitations:
  7. Gross profit ratio
  8. Net profit ratio
  9. Operating ratio
  10. Expense ratio
  11. Return on shareholders investment or net worth
  12. Return on equity capital
  13. Return on capital employed (ROCE) Ratio
  14. Dividend yield ratio
  15. Dividend payout ratio
  16. Earnings Per Share (EPS) Ratio
  17. Price earning ratio
  18. Current ratio
  19. Liquid/Acid test/Quick ratio
  20. Inventory/Stock turnover ratio
  21. Debtors/Receivables turnover ratio
  22. Average collection period
  23. Creditors/Payable turnover ratio
  24. Working capital turnover ratio
  25. Fixed assets turnover ratio
  26. Over and under trading
  27. Debt-to-equity ratio
  28. Proprietary or Equity ratio
  29. Ratio of fixed assets to shareholders funds
  30. Ratio of current assets to shareholders funds
  31. Interest coverage ratio
  32. Capital gearing ratio
  33. Over and under capitalization
  34. Financial-Accounting- Ratios Formulas
  35. Limitations of Financial Statement Analysis

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